A good kindergarten experience sets kids up for success in school and into adulthood. Students in smaller kindergarten classes are more likely to go to college than students from larger classes. And by age 27, students who had more experienced kindergarten teachers were earning more money than their peers who had less-experienced teachers in kindergarten.
One factor many parents consider is their child’s age when starting kindergarten, based on how close their age is to the cutoff date for enrollment. The ages at which kids are eligible to start kindergarten differ across the United States and in other countries. Most commonly in the U.S., a child who turns 5 on or before Sept. 1 of a given year can start kindergarten that year. But most states don’t actually require a child to start school until later, even age 7 or 8.
Evidence shows that children who are relatively young for their kindergarten class — those who are only a few weeks or months older than the cutoff rules require — are at increased risk for doing worse in school, being held back a grade, and having lower social-emotional skills.
Students who start kindergarten younger are also more likely to be rated by teachers as exhibiting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in kindergarten and to be treated with medication for ADHD.
When younger kids fare worse than older kids in the same, single-grade classroom, and older kids are viewed as more advanced, it’s often because adults tend to compare children to one another. The relatively older children may appear to behave better than the relatively younger children, especially as kindergarten classrooms focus more on academics and offer less time to play. Together these differences are called the “relative age effect.”
As a result, some families choose to delay their child’s entry into kindergarten, particularly those who can afford to do so.
I am a clinical psychologist who studies how to best support children in school settings, particularly those at risk for behavioral challenges like ADHD. Here are five ways families can help support their kindergartners, especially those who are relatively younger than their classmates.
1. Learning opportunities
Relatively older students have had more time to learn academic skills. To help younger kindergartners catch up with their older classroom peers, families can offer additional learning experiences. This includes engaging the children in more conversations and shared book reading. This can be started during the preschool years and throughout kindergarten.
2. Be positive
Parents and educators can direct focus as much as possible on encouraging and praising the positive performance of relatively younger children in the classroom. If the feedback is mostly negative — in which the relatively younger child is always told to “hurry up,” “pay attention,” “do it the right way,” and all other variations of directives that include words like “no,” “don’t” or “stop” — they may eventually shut down and stop trying to follow instructions. To combat this, educators and parents can focus on emphasizing all the things the child is doing right, rather than wrong. A good goal is to be mindful of directing at least three positive statements to the child for every correction or redirection.
A New Jersey kindergartner releases a turtle into the wild after it was raised from an egg when its mother was struck and killed by a car. AP Photo/Wayne Parry
3. Set tailored goals
Parents of relatively younger children can meet with their child’s teacher early in the school year to discuss individual goals for the child. That meeting can discuss the child’s current strengths and skills, as well as areas in need of growth. The adults can establish reasonable, achievable goals for the child each week or month. That can help offset possible relative comparisons that may mask individual progress.
4. Track progress
To follow up with the goals set at the beginning of the year, a daily or weekly check-in on behavioral or academic progress can help parents and teachers work best together. Waiting until the end of the school year is too long and leaves no time to change course if goals need to be modified. Frequent check-ins also provide opportunities to reward and praise the child for success.
5. Keep perspective
Educators and parents may find it useful to remember that kindergarten is only one year of what is almost two decades of education for children on a college track — and age differences matter less and less in academic performance as children get older.
Gregory Fabiano works on research studies that have received funding from the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Institute for Education Sciences. He receives royalties from Guilford Publications and consultant payments from FastBridge Learning.
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license.
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No matter how unusual the name, chances are someone has at some point tried assigning it to a baby. You have to wonder what some parents are thinking. Who looks at their little bundle of joy and decides “Hashtag” would be the perfect name?
Stacker scoured hundreds of baby name databases and news releases to curate a list of baby names that are illegal somewhere in the world, along with explanations for why they’re banned.
Sometimes a little creativity leads to lovely, unique names. Other times, thinking outside the box has disastrous consequences. Governments around the world have taken it upon themselves to outlaw certain offensive, baffling, or downright ridiculous baby names to save kids everywhere from decades of embarrassment, confusion, and bullying. Still, not all laws make perfect sense—what’s wrong with the name “Linda” anyway?
Read on to find out which six-word name was banned in New Zealand, which country won’t allow you to name little girls “Sarah,” and which nation did not approve of naming a child after a deadly poison.
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- Name meaning: The name of the leader of Nazi Germany.
- Reason for ban: It’s offensive.
Several countries have forbidden future children from being named after the genocidal German dictator, but the United States isn’t one of them. Here, where we’re known for lax naming laws, a New Jersey family created controversy in 2008 when they ordered a birthday cake with their 3-year-old son’s name on it: “Adolf Hitler Campbell.”
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- Name meaning: Devil.
- Reason for ban: Japanese officials sought to protect a child from mockery.
When parents register newborn babies in Japan, they must choose a name written in official Japanese characters, or kanji. While “Akuma” technically fulfills that requirement, the government intervened in 1993 when two parents gave the name to their newborn son.
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- Name meaning: Presumably, it means “all powerful.”
- Reason for ban: Children can’t have more than two names.
The local government in Sonora, Mexico, prevents children from being registered with names that might be construed as derogatory, pejorative, discriminatory, or devoid of meaning—or that would expose kids to ridicule. We can only imagine the mean rhymes the classmates of little “All Power” would come up with.
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- Name meaning: Prince.
- Reason for ban: Saudi Arabian citizens cannot name their children anything that relates to royalty.
Parents looking to improve a kid’s social status by naming him or her something aristocratic better not move to Saudi Arabia. Royal terms like Sumuw (highness), Malika (queen), and Al Mamlaka (the kingdom) are all off-limits.
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- Name meaning: The name of a tribe of people originally from Ghana.
- Reason for ban: The Portuguese government’s ban on this name doesn’t have anything to do with the early 2000s singer, but with the origin of the name itself. Portugal favors traditionally Portuguese names. Similar to Denmark, parents have to choose from a vetted list.
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- Name meaning: One can only assume it means someone with a water pipe for a noggin.
- Reason for ban: It’s offensive.
Though the state of Victoria released a list of 46 banned names in 2016, Australia only outlaws 17 especially derogatory ones.
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- Name meaning: Unclear, but the parents claimed it should be pronounced “Albin.”
- Reason for ban: It isn’t a name.
Swedish naming law states, in part, that “names which for some obvious reason are not suitable as a first name” will not be approved. This 43-character alphanumeric monstrosity of a moniker—which two parents tried to give their son in protest of the country’s naming laws—clearly fits that description.
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- Name meaning: A free person.
- Reason for ban: The Icelandic alphabet doesn’t include the letter “c.”
In a very practical move, Iceland doesn’t allow its citizens to give their children names that can’t be written with the Icelandic alphabet or pronounced with proper Icelandic grammar.
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- Name meaning: Smelly head.
- Reason for ban: The Malaysian government doesn’t allow pejorative words as names.
Chow Tow, which means “smelly head” in Cantonese, is off-limits in Malaysia and parts of nearby Australia. Malaysia also disallows numbers, Japanese car names, and royal titles in monikers.
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- Name meaning: A deadly poison.
- Reason for ban: The moniker might bring harm to the child in the future.
A U.K. court intervened after a British woman named her twins “Cyanide” and “Preacher.” The determination was that neither name would be appropriate for a child, and specifically stated the name “Cyanide” could be interpreted as a rejection of the girl by her mother.
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- Name meaning: The Spanish form of Heinrich, Germanic for “powerful ruler of the home.”
- Reason for ban: Foreign names are generally not allowed in Iceland.
Like “Carolina,” this name can’t be assigned to a person in Iceland because “Enrique” can’t be pronounced using traditional Icelandic grammar.
- Name meaning: The social media platform and website.
- Reason for ban: The Mexican state prohibits names “lacking in meaning.”
Sadly, your obsession with viral videos doesn’t give you license to name your child “Facebook”—at least, not in Sonora, Mexico. The state prohibits names devoid of meaning (no matter how meaningful one may personally find the social networking site), those which might adversely affect a child later in life, and those that could be construed as derogatory.
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- Name meaning: Strawberry.
- Reason for ban: It’s embarrassing and too similar to a slang term.
Though French parents have the leeway to name their kids anything they like, local prosecutors can report questionable names to the higher court. A judge in 2015 ruled that the name “Fraise” was too similar to “ramène ta fraise,” which loosely translates to “get your butt over here.” The name, the court determined, was therefore inappropriate.
- Name meaning: Bridge.
- Reason for ban: It’s not on the Norwegian government’s list of approved names.
Kirsti Larsen said the name “Gesher”—the Hebrew word for “bridge”—came to her in a dream. But since it wasn’t included on the official government list of approved names, she was asked to change it or pay a fine of 1,600 kroner. Larsen refused and ended up serving two days in jail.
- Name meaning: An all-powerful being.
- Reason for ban: Several names explicitly tied to religion are banned.
The Australian state doesn’t allow parents to give their children any religious monikers. That includes names like “Jesus” and “Bishop.”
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- Name meaning: “Harry” comes from the German “Heri,” or “army,” but the name is more closely attributed to the fictional wizard and namesake of J.K. Rowling’s fantasy novels.
- Reason for ban: It could cause embarrassment and bullying.
While many people may adore J.K. Rowling’s boy wizard, the Sonoran government doesn’t think any kid should have to grow up in Harry Potter’s shadow.
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- Name meaning: Three, or the third.
- Reason for ban: It’s inherently confusing.
Thomas Boyd Ritchie III tried to change his name to the Roman numeral “III” in California, saying he already uses it as a nickname with friends and acquaintances. The court disagreed, however, stating symbols or numbers alone don’t constitute a name—and that Californians must have a first and last name.
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- Name meaning: A chain of Swedish furniture superstores.
- Reason for ban: It’s not appropriate for a child’s name.
For starters, the multinational furniture company has a trademark on its name. The moniker also flies in the face of the Australian government’s policy to not allow name assignments that aren’t in a child’s (or the public’s) best interest.
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- Name meaning: A desktop computer produced by Apple.
- Reason for ban: It’s an object, not a person’s name.
Naming a child after a popular computer—no matter how high-quality—doesn’t exactly show the world how much you love and care for your son or daughter.
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- Name meaning: Soft, tender; beautiful.
- Reason for ban: It’s foreign.
The Saudi Arabian government actually takes issue with several Western girls’ names. These include other seemingly benign names such as “Alice” and “Elaine.”
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- Name meaning: Graceful light.
- Reason for ban: Accents and special characters aren’t permitted in California.
California only allows names written using the 26 letters of the English alphabet. That means no special characters, numbers, or accents.
- Name meaning: The devil.
- Reason for ban: It’s derogatory.
From 2001 to 2013, six sets of New Zealand parents attempted to name their children “Lucifer.” Luckily for the newborns, the New Zealand Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages has to approve all names. This devilish one didn’t make the cut.
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- Name meaning: Unknown.
- Reason for ban: It’s inappropriate.
Each year, New Zealand officials have to turn down a bevy of unusual name requests by parents. Since 2001, the monikers most commonly shot down are “Justice” and “King.” “Mafia No Fear” was requested just once.
- Name meaning: King.
- Reason for ban: This title is reserved solely for royalty.
As a monarchy, Saudi Arabia bans the use of all kinds of regal names by commoners. And don’t even think about “Malika”—the word for “queen.”
- Name meaning: The last name of legendary soccer player Lionel Messi.
- Reason for ban: Last names can’t be used as first names.
Soccer fans in Lionel Messi’s hometown seeking to pay tribute to their sports hero by naming infants after him are out of luck—at least, if they want to use the last name “Messi” as a child’s first name. The town specifically outlawed the moniker due to such a large volume of parents assigning the name to their children. “Lionel,” however, is still fair game!
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- Name meaning: A primate.
- Reason for ban: It’s inappropriate and could lead to bullying.
Naming a human being after an animal—even one we’re distantly related to—doesn’t exactly have positive connotations. The moniker is not part of Denmark’s approved list of thousands of names for parents to choose from.
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- Name meaning: A popular chocolate-hazelnut spread.
- Reason for ban: It’s too similar to a well-known food.
A French court ruled that sharing a name with a breakfast food commonly found on European breakfast tables was “contrary to the child’s interest.” The child was renamed Ella.
- Name meaning: The name of the former leader of al-Qaeda.
- Reason for ban: It’s offensive.
Germany stopped a Turkish couple from naming their child after the al-Qaeda leader, noting the family’s home country wouldn’t allow the name, either.
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- Name meaning: The elected head of a government.
- Reason for ban: It’s confusing.
Much as you might admire your country’s head of state, it’s probably not a good idea to give the title to your first-born.
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- Name meaning: Possibly the best-known dwarf planet in the universe.
- Reason for ban: It’s inappropriate.
Sorry, science geeks: Denmark’s Law on Personal Names still doesn’t permit the name “Pluto.” The law holds, even after 2006 when Pluto was demoted to “dwarf planet” status.
- Name meaning: Pure, happy; princess.
- Reason for ban: It’s not traditionally Moroccan.
Moroccan parents must choose baby names from a government-approved list that fit the “Moroccan identity.” The Hebrew name “Sarah” did not make the cut.
- Name meaning: Someone who stinks.
- Reason for ban: It’s derogatory.
Now that’s just mean. Australian officials thankfully kept at least one child from unwittingly being forced into a lifetime of mockery.
- Name meaning: A short man; also the name of a murdered South African teen activist.
- Reason for ban: It might lead to bullying or ridicule.
Whether the parents wanted to pay a tribute to the young anti-apartheid figure Stompie Moeketsi or just thought the name was cute, German officials rejected the name “Stompie” to prevent the child from being teased.
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- Name meaning: Irish pop band in the mid-2000s.
- Reason for ban: It exposes the child to ridicule.
After her parents named her “Talula Does the Hula From Hawaii,” the child eventually began introducing herself to friends as simply “K.” She suffered so much embarrassment and teasing that a family court judge actually put her into court guardianship so her name could be changed.
- Name meaning: A Swiss cartoon character and comic series.
- Reason for ban: Comparisons to the comic strip weren’t in the child’s best interests.
Though paying an homage to pop culture in your child’s name wouldn’t cause anyone to blink an eye in the United States, the French take a much stricter view. A court there ruled a boy could not be named after the popular, cowlicked comic strip character.
- Name meaning: An homage to the United States Navy military branch.
- Reason for ban: It’s lacking in meaning and could be used as pejorative.
Believe it or not, at least one person attempted to name their child “Usnavy” in the past few years, prompting the local government to formally ban the name. One can’t help but wonder if the parents were inspired by the name of the lead character in Lin-Manuel Miranda’s Tony-winning Broadway musical, “In the Heights.”
- Name meaning: The Italian word for “Friday.”
- Reason for ban: It could cause mockery and bullying.
An Italian court ordered the parents of this little boy to rename him “Gregorio,” saying the original name was associated with “subservience and inferiority” in Daniel Defoe’s novel “Robinson Crusoe.”
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- Name meaning: Five times 10.
- Reason for ban: It’s a number.
Very few states have any laws prohibiting names, but New Jersey does have one. Numbers, symbols, and curse words are all off-limits.
- Name meaning: Full stop.
- Reason for ban: It’s not a name and could cause confusion.
How would you even pronounce this? “Period”? “Full stop”? “Dot”? Needless to say, New Zealand won’t allow you to name your child with punctuation.
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- Name meaning: At. In Chinese, it’s pronounced “ai-ta” which sounds similar to “love him” in Chinese.
- Reason for ban: It’s a symbol.
Chinese parents technically can choose any name they’d like for their kids. That said, people are encouraged to choose baby names that can easily be read or scanned by a computer on a Resident Identity Card, the country’s official identification document. Symbols aren’t allowed, and simplified Chinese characters are encouraged over traditional ones.
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