A judge says he won't approve the city of Portland's agreement with the federal Justice Department to reform police training and use-of-force policies unless he can hold at least annual hearings on the progress of police compliance.

The Oregonian newspaper reports that U.S. District Court Judge Michael Simon told attorneys Monday he does not think it would be right for 3 1/2 years to go by without the court learning how substantial compliance is progressing.

The settlement stems from a Justice Department investigation that found Portland police engaged in a pattern or practice of excessive force against people with mental illness.

The investigation also listed several examples in which officers used stun guns without justification against people in a mental health crisis.