-- Family dysfunction or violence
-- Substance abuse within the family
-- Social isolation, poverty, or other socioeconomic disadvantages
-- Parental stress and distress
However, "the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care interventions to prevent child maltreatment," the task force said Monday. The recommendation applies to children (aged newborn to 18 years) who do not have signs or symptoms of maltreatment."
"The bottom line," said task force member and pediatrician Dr. David Grossman, "is that more research is needed on how primary care clinicians can effectively screen and protect all populations, including older and vulnerable adults, middle-aged women, men, and children, from abuse and violence."