c. optometrist

d. b and c

The answers

1. a, a baby can focus at birth. Infants can follow objects within 8 to 12 inches of their faces.

2. a, six months. The eye doctor will test for vision problems including nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism.

3. d, a and b. Tears can also be a reaction to an irritant in the eye, to bright light or to spicy foods, as well as to emotional upset (crying).

4. a, A Snellen chart is used to determine visual acuity, how clearly and sharply you see objects. The chart has characters (usually letters from the alphabet) in gradually smaller sizes. The sizes are arranged such that they can be read by the average normal eye at 200, 100, 70, 50, 40, 30, 20, 15, and occasionally 10 feet. The person is stationed 20 feet from the chart. and reads the smallest sized letters he or she can. A person with normal eyes should be able to read down to the 20 foot line (many can read to the 15 foot line). A score of 20/20 means being able to stand at the 20 foot line and read the characters on the line that normal eyes can read at 20 feet. A reading of 20/40 means that you must be as close as 20 feet to see what a person with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

5. d, people older than 50. Special prescription eyeglasses for computer or single strength OTC reading glasses can help.

6. d, all of the above.

7. b, every two years. For those with normal vision, every three to five years until age 50 can be adequate. After age 50, have annual exams. People with diabetes should be seen annually or more often as directed by their physician.

8. d, all of the above. Refractive surgery can be done either mechanically using special surgical tools or by laser. Laser refractive surgery can correct nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. There is not yet an effective treatment for presbyopia because this condition is caused by failure of the lens to accommodate rather than problems with the shape of the cornea.

9. c, diabetes. The condition is called diabetic retinopathy.

10. b, an ophthalmologist. An ophthalmologist is the only eye-care professional qualified to perform surgery.

Source: Pure Matters